In office
Prime Minister
Liberal Party of Canada
2,175 days in office
42rd Parliament of Canada
03 Dec 2015 - 11 Sep 2019
43rd Parliament of Canada
05 Dec 2019 - 15 Aug 2021
44th Parliament of Canada
22 Nov 2021 - Present

The 2019 Canadian federal election (formally the 43rd Canadian general election) was held on October 21, 2019 to elect members of the House of Commons to the 43rd Canadian Parliament.

The Liberal Party, led by incumbent Prime Minister Justin Trudeau, won 157 seats to form a minority government. The Liberals lost the majority government they had secured in the previous federal election in 2015. They also lost the popular vote to the Conservatives, which marks only the second time in Canadian history that a governing party formed a government while receiving less than 35 per cent of the national popular vote.

For an assessment of this government’s performance during its first mandate (2015-2019), see Birch and Pétry (2019), Bilan du gouvernement libéral de Justin Trudeau : 353 promesses et un mandat de changement, published by Les Presses de l’Université Laval.

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Promise History

2.05.03 - “[W]e will set legally-binding, five-year milestones, based on the advice of the experts and consultations with Canadians, to reach net-zero emissions”


[Source not avaibable in English. Translation.] “After a summer of extreme weather, the environment could be a major issue in the upcoming election campaign. In less than two years, the Liberal Party has managed to make some “good moves” on the environment, but not to overcome policy inconsistencies, say observers.”


“Today, the Minister of Environment and Climate Change, the Honourable Jonathan Wilkinson, formally submitted Canada’s enhanced Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) to the United Nations, committing Canada to cut its greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) by 40‑45 percent below 2005 levels by 2030. Canada’s NDC submission outlines a series of investments, regulations and measures that the country is taking in pursuit of its ambitious target. It includes input from provincial, territorial and Indigenous partners. These actions are also detailed in a new publication, entitled “Canada’s Climate Actions for a Healthy Environment and a Healthy Economy”. This is Canada’s first emissions reduction target that is enshrined in law under the new Canadian Net-Zero Emissions Accountability Act, which received Royal Assent in June 2021.”


The bill has received Royal Assent. The government must set targets, publish a GHG reduction plan, and report to Parliament on the achievement of the targets according to a legislated schedule. The Commissioner of the Environment and Sustainable Development reviews the measures and results.

In the works

Introduction and First Reading

“The Minister must set the national greenhouse gas emissions target for 2030 within six months of the day on which this Act comes into force.”

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“In addition, the federal government has committed to develop a plan to set Canada on a path to achieve a prosperous net-zero emissions future by 2050, including setting legally-binding, 5-year emissions-reduction milestones based on the advice of experts and consultations with Canadians, and working to position Canada as a global leader in clean technology. Other key priorities, including support for clean electricity generation, greener buildings and communities, the electrification of transportation and nature-based climate solutions (including a commitment to plant 2 billion trees over the next 10 years) had not yet been formally announced at the time the projections were being completed. As new measures are announced in more detail and implemented, they will be included in the modelling and will have an impact on future projected emissions levels, including for 2030.”

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“Earlier this month, the Government of Canada announced commitments to further strengthen existing and introduce new greenhouse gas reducing measures in order to exceed Canada’s current 2030 emissions reduction goal. In addition, Canada will develop a plan to achieve net-zero emissions by 2050 and will set legally-binding, five-year emissions reduction milestones, based on the advice of experts and consultations with Canadians.”

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Started tracking on: 05-Dec-2019
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